Allopurinol - a drug that promotes the excretion of uric acid and the removal of urinary calculi.
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Allopurinol is a drug that reduces the level of uric acid in the body, and also helps to dissolve urates.
The mechanism of Allopurinol's action is associated with its ability to inhibit the activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and its further conversion to uric acid.
Indications for use
Allopurinol is prescribed for patients that are suffering from diseases caused by an increased level of uric acid, including podagra, urate stone disease and urate nephropathy. Allopurinol is used in the treatment of patients with secondary hyperuricemia of various genesis, primary and secondary hyperuricemia in hemoblastoses. Allopurinol 100 mg is used in pediatric practice for the treatment of patients older than 15 years suffering from urate nephropathy on treatment against leukemia, as well as patients with secondary hyperuricemia of various genesis, congenital enzymatic deficiency.
Mode of application
Allopurinol pills are intended for oral use. It is recommended to swallow tablets without chewing but drinking with a lot of water. It is advisable to take Allopurinol after meals. You have to drink a large amount of fluid to maintain a normal diuresis, in case of necessity you can also alkalinize urine. The duration of treatment and dose of the drug Allopurinol is determined by the doctor. The daily dose is calculated taking into account the levels of uric acid in the plasma. The average daily dose is 100-300 mg of allopurinol.
The daily dose can be assigned at one time. It is recommended to start therapy with a minimum dose (100 mg per day) and, if necessary to adjust it. Correction of the dose of allopurinol is carried out 1 time in 1-3 weeks, taking into account the level of uric acid in the plasma.
The average maintenance dose is 200-600 mg of allopurinol per day. In some cases, high-dose treatment (600-800 mg of allopurinol per day) may be required.
Allopurinol rarely causes side effects. Mostly at the beginning of treatment, patients may develop gout attacks. In rare cases arise: agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, angioimmunoblastnaya lymphadenopathy, leukocytosis, leukopenia, eosinophilia, elevated liver enzymes, acute cholangitis, xanthine stones, granulomatous hepatitis, liver necrosis, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, depression, peripheral neuritis, ataxia, headache, paralysis, neuropathy, decrease in visual acuity, retinal degeneration, cataract, changes in sense of taste, decreased blood pressure, bradycardia, erectile dysfunction, infertility, gynecomastia, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, purpura, exfoliative dermatitis, Lyell's syndrome, vasculitis, epidermal necrolysis, joint pain, fever, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, sore throat, vomiting of blood, disease, steatorrhea, disorders stool, nausea, alopecia, hair